Modification of Kynurenine Pathway via Inhibition of Kynurenine Hydroxylase Attenuates Surgical Brain Injury
Medicine and Health Sciences
Neurosurgical procedures result in surgically-induced brain injury (SBI) that causes postoperative complications including brain edema and neuronal apoptosis in the surrounding brain tissue. SBI leads to the release of cytokines that indirectly cause the stimulation of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) and the release of neurotoxic quinolinic acid (QUIN). This study tested a KMO inhibitor, RO 61-8048, to prevent postoperative brain edema and consequent neuronal apoptosis in an in vivo model of SBI. A rodent model of SBI was utilized which involves partial resection of the right frontal lobe. A total of 102 Sprague-Dawley male rats (weight 275-325g) were randomly divided into six groups: Sham surgical group, SBI, SBI+DMSO, SBI+RO 61-8048 (10 mg/kg), SBI+ RO 61-8048 (40 mg/kg), and SBI+RO 61-8048 (40 mg/kg)+KAT II inhibitor PF-04859989 (5 mg/kg). RO 61-8048 was administered by intraperitoneal injection after SBI. Postoperative assessment at different time-points included brain water content (brain edema), neurological scoring, and western blot. SBI increased brain water content (ipsilateral frontal lobe), decreased neurological function, and increased apoptotic markers compared with sham animals. Treatment with RO 61-8048 (40mg/kg) reduced brain water content and improved neurological function after SBI. RO 61-8048 increased the expression of kynurenic acid (KYNA) while reducing QUIN and apoptotic markers in the surrounding brain tissue after SBI. These neuroprotective effects were reversed by PF-04859989. This study suggests KMO inhibition via RO 61-8048 as a potential postoperative therapy following neurosurgical procedures.
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Zakhary, George OMS-2; Sherchan, Prativa Ph.D; Li, Qian Ph.D; Tang, Jiping MD; and Zhang, John H. MD, Ph.D, "Modification of Kynurenine Pathway via Inhibition of Kynurenine Hydroxylase Attenuates Surgical Brain Injury" (2018). MU-COM Research Day. 65.