Catholic Studies | European History | History of Religion | United States History
"From the French Revolution, 1798, right through the nineteenth century and into the 20th Century, in nearly every major European country the Catholic Church found itself embattled. Its monopoly in religion ended or challenged by anti-clericalism, secularism, liberalism targeting the Church’s authority and putting its privileges, property, prestige, and independence under siege.
Every pope from Pius VI (1775-1799) to Pius X (1903-1914) fought against the enemy--modernity. They revived the Index of Prohibited Books, declared monarchy the best polity, and condemned church-state separation, toleration, freedom of conscience, and any idea the Church needed reform."
Copyright © 2018 William Doherty. All rights reserved.
Doherty, William Ph.D., "The Church Besieged, the French Revolution, Nationalism, and the Battle over Modernity" (2018). Department of History and Social Sciences. 16.