Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Based Therapeutic Approaches.

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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) constitute the largest subdivision of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of ligands and exert most of their effects through the canonical effectors Smad1, 5, and 8. Appropriate regulation of BMP signaling is critical for the development and homeostasis of numerous human organ systems. Aberrations in BMP pathways or their regulation are increasingly associated with diverse human pathologies, and there is an urgent and growing need to develop effective approaches to modulate BMP signaling in the clinic. In this review, we provide a wide perspective on diseases and/or conditions associated with dysregulated BMP signal transduction, outline the current strategies available to modulate BMP pathways, highlight emerging second-generation technologies, and postulate prospective avenues for future investigation.


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