Strabismus “squint eyes” is a common disorder presenting in about 2% of children born each year. While there are several causes to this presentation, we demonstrated presentation caused by Peripheral nerve neuropathies, especially the ones originating from Oculomotor (CN III) and Abducens Nerve (CN VI). The goal of this project is to create explicit 3D videos and models to be used for student and patient education. Additionally, the pathology and visual defect manifestations of the disorder were also discussed.
New imaging technologies and 3D rendering software, in addition to being useful diagnostic tools, allow us to augment patient education and further medical student and physician knowledge. 3D imaging modalities such as CT and MRI expedite the learning process for medical students, allow physicians to better visualize the anatomy and potential pathologies present, and aid in educating patients to help them better understand their conditions. We present here 3D interpretations from a sample of CT imaging studies of the cerebral vasculature, optic neural pathways, and paranasal sinuses. These data were obtained from the NIH Cancer Database, among other sources. The raw imaging data was imported into a third-party image analysis software called Amira, which was used to primarily facilitate 3D renderings. From there, the project images were further manipulated and enhanced utilizing other third-party programs, including Autodesk, Mesh Mixer, Adobe 3D Toolkit, and Softwarecasa Camtasia Studio, so that they could be exported as 3D prints, interactive 3D PDFs, and 3D animations. Analysis of data, 3D rendering, and construction of the final products all took place in the Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine 3D Research Lab. Our intent for the first step in using these projects for medical education includes making these 3D models available to first-year gross anatomy curricula, with the goal of helping students better visualize structures that may otherwise be problematic to view in a cadaver. Our ultimate goal is to have 3D visualization technology incorporated into various facets of medical practice and education: for instance, this technology may help physicians incorporate 3D visualizations of various pathologies (e.g. exact locations of berry aneurysms) into their everyday practice and patient interactions.
Kidney transplantation is a major surgical intervention and patients undergoing counseling for this procedure do not always fully understand the essentials of this procedure. We present an improved way to facilitate patient education by creating a visual aid that can be used to supplement physician counseling in patients considering kidney transplantation. We used anonymized CT scans and image analysis software to compute anatomical renderings of normal kidney anatomy as well as the anatomical differences in a patient before and after a kidney transplant. These 3D renderings were animated to create a basic educational video explaining the procedure to candidate patients.
A smartphone conveying gameplay movement instructions via encasement in a glowing football was designed to increase fitness and reduce obesity. While smartphone geolocation apps have flourished, people's ability to interact with them in high speed and velocity activities remains limited due to their form factor and need for significant visual attention. Specifically, a standardized smartphone grid display to convey movement instructions was designed, along with smartphone “orb” cases which were 3D printed to increase velocity of movement in geospatial games for use by K-12 grade students. Fitting a variety of different smartphones, the 3D printed case is being tested to employ an array of tubes that bend at specific angles (0-90 degrees) which emit light from the screen of the phone, allowing for directionality while using a geospatial app. Multiple paints were tested to maximize light exiting from the far end of the tube, as well as to determine the optimal angle for light emittance. Light intensity emitted from 3D printed and store bought tubes was measured using, white, black, and chrome paints, as well as a titration of reflective beads in white paint. The results indicated that chrome paint allowed for the highest amount of light emittance compared to other paints with up to a 75 degree bend being tolerated. The case, as well as future developed geospatial smartphone applications, would allow new ways for students and individuals to exercise and compete with others and will help combat the negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle through socially incentivized games, such as tag, scavenger hunts, or capture the flag.
3D visualization software is a useful tool in
patient education because it allows patients to
put an image to what a physician is describing
to them. With an emphasis on education of
young athletes on the potential injuries, 3D
images can create a more complete
understanding of their risks. The software
used in this study provides young athletes with
insight on joint structure, joint movement,
mechanism of injury, inherent risks of sport,
and tips to help prevent injury in a way that is
easier to visualize. This gives these patients
the ability to make an informed decision on
their participation in sports.
Visualizing the spatial relationships of anatomical features, gross pathologies, and diagnostic findings is a fundamental part of the training of medical students and other learners in health-professions curricula. But to what extent can we augment the conventional training opportunities (e.g. Gross dissection, interpretation of sectional imagery, interpretation of histological sections) with 3D enhanced visualizations of anatomic, histologic, and diagnostic data-sets? Here we present a case study of medical-students at Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine utilizing 3D visualization and printing techniques as part of a summer training opportunity. Medical students, in the summer between their first and second year of medical school training, self-identified an interest in the interpretation of sectional imagery. These students were then encouraged to design a project with the aim of presenting a 3D visualization of an anatomic or pathologic study that could be better understood in a 3D format than conventional imaging formats. The students also identified the target audience for these studies— these included student-doctors, medical residents, and clinical patients. Case studies the students completed included visualizations of maxillofacial surgical interventions, pediatric cardiac defects, neurological tracts, cerebral basal ganglia, and paranasal sinuses, among others. The resulting 3D interpretations were then presented as either 3D prints (utilizing stereolithography), YouTube videos, interactive 3D PDF files, or some combination of these media. It is possible to develop case studies to a high degree of maturity during a summer program. The next step in this study is to identify the efficacy of these presentations in various learning environments.
Context: The purpose of this project was to design a 3-dimensional method for visualizing structures within the brainstem with special attention to those involved in Lateral Medullary (Wallenberg) Syndrome. Wallenberg syndrome is a neurologic disorder involving an infarct in blood supply of the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery. Around 60,000 new cases of Wallenberg syndrome occur each year in the U.S. resulting in a multitude of symptoms and often permanent impairment. Objective: The objective of this project was to observe the brainstem including the lateral medulla in its connection to Wallenberg syndrome. A secondary objective was to provide a resource to medical students as they learn the structure and function of the human brainstem. Design: This project was created using Amira software to extract a 3D model of the brainstem from a freely available CT data-set of a randomized patient. This model was used to create videos demonstrating key structural elements affected in Wallenberg Syndrome and made into a YouTube video available for public use. Setting: The scan data selected for this project was chosen based solely on image quality in order to provide the amount of resolution needed to extract the targeted structures. Methods: Amira is an analytical tool used to highlight anatomical structures in CT (and other imaging) scans within desired tissue parameters and interpolating the selections together to create a 3D structure. Results: The final structure extrapolated from Amira was a completed brainstem with cranial nerve nuclei, sensory and motor tracts, and other important structures impacted by Wallenberg syndrome. We believe these data will be helpful in visualizing other brainstem infarcts and injuries as well as a teaching tool for students in the medical field. Conclusions: Future expansions of this study will include extracting additional structures taken from the CT data as well as descriptions of other normal and abnormal anatomical conditions.
3D Visualization is a growing field in medicine. It is used for diagnosis, intervention design, and patient education. Medical students and physicians have little difficulty picturing a heart in their mind. Most physicians and medical students can envision an anatomically correct heart, and also congenital heart defects. Patients and their families, however, do not always have this extraordinary ability. Objective: It is this potential disadvantage that provides motivation to develop innovative 3D tools that can be used to educate patients in clinical and hospital settings. Design: The primary focus of this study is to recover 3D structures and images from CT Data. The data were acquired from a number of sources, including Cardiology Radiologists at St. Vincent Hospital Cardiovascular Imaging Department and the National Institutes of Health Cancer Imaging Archive. Setting: The study was performed in the Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine 3D Visualization Laboratory. Methods: The CT data sets were analyzed with the 3D analytical software FEI Amira, and relevant anatomical structures, landmarks, and anomalies were identified and discriminated. Results: The researchers present two 3D projects: one of an anatomically correct heart, and the other of a heart after corrective surgery for the Tetralogy of Fallot congenital anomalies. Conclusions: We find that by developing our skills in 3D Visualization, we can create more accurate, interactive, and detailed images of cardiac anatomy. Our 3D Visualizations show great potential in advancing patient education and better enable us to care for our patients, both in clinical and hospital settings.
The goal of this project is to build a teaching tool geared towards patients, students, and clinicians to further educate themselves about the anatomical and biochemical implications of various syndromes involving depression and anxiety. Secondarily, we also want to inform patients, students, and clinicians about the most common treatment methods used to treat these syndromes. We achieved this by mapping the mesolimbic system and other relevant neuroanatomical structures using a high-resolution cryosec-tion dataset made available by the Big Brain project at McGill University using cutting-edge 3D analysis software tools. The results of this project were compiled into a series of three videos serving each of the goals. The first video described the neuroanatomical structures involved in syndromes of depression and anxiety along with their functions. The second video describes various forms of clinical depression and treatment options, including the mechanism of action and how it applies to the underlying disease process. The third video did the same but described anxiety rather than depression. This tool we developed is important because it explains neuroanatomical and biochemical aspects of these syndromes in a straight-forward and easy-to-understand visual manner. It also describes the context of the best pharmacological interventions for each syndrome, which is a substantial step to help engage patients in their personalized mental health treatment plan.
Context 3-Dimensional (3D) imaging is utilized in a variety of ways in medicine, including ultra-sound facial scanning in utero, breast cancer detection, and mapping blood vessels. 3D imaging can also be used to educate both students and patients. Oftentimes, it can prove difficult to visualize the spatial relationships between blood vessels and territories they supply or drain, but through the use of 3D-image rendering software we can improve the way this information is presented to enhance medical student and patient education. All images and videos produced in this research project were produced at Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine in the 3D Visualization Laboratory. Anony-mized CT image studies were evaluated with the 3D analytical software Amira. This allowed for the identification and discrimination of anatomical structures such as blood vessels, lung tissue, and airways. Using the video and animation editing software Camtasia Studio, the 3D images were composed into an educational video to be presented for further clarity. This research project used CT images to provide a clear demonstration of the pulmonary vasculature and its corresponding territories. In anatomy lab, students may find it difficult to find basic anatomical structures. For example, visualization of the pulmonary artery’s branches and vascular territories within the lung requires tedious dissection. Figures generated throughout the project show the paths of the various pulmonary artery branches which supply the different lobes of the lung, allowing viewers to appreciate the vascular territories much more easily. This project includes a YouTube video, complete with 3D imaging for each pulmonary artery and vein branches, to help portray functional pulmonary anatomy and vascular territories so as to mitigate any confusion students or patients may have.